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09Août, 2020, 19:57:35
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Auteur Fil de discussion: Nouvelle traduction du Silmarillion  (Lu 657 fois)
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« Répondre #15 le: 18Juin, 2020, 18:43:33 »

Mais c'est pas Tolkien lui-même qui indiquait quels noms propres traduire en langue locale ?

Exact, dans la Nomenclature susmentionnée, divisée en personnes ou créatures, lieux et choses, très utile pour prendre la mesure du travail philologique de Tolkien. Puisqu'il était question du Shire, un exemple :

Citation de: Nomenclature of the Lord of the Rings
Shire. An organized region with a 'county-town' (...). (In the case of the hobbit's Shire this was Michel Delving.) Since this word is current in mod. E. and therefore is in the tale CS, translate by sense.
Shire, OE scir, seems very early to have replaced the ancient Germanic word for a 'district', found in its oldest form in Gothic gawi, surviving now in Dutch gouw, Ger. Gau. In E., owing to its reduction to ge (pronounced ye), it survived only in a few old place names, the best known of which is Surrey (from Suðer-ge) 'southern district'. This word would seem the nearest equivalent in antiquity and general sense to the Shire of the story. The Dutch version uses Gouw; Gau seems to me suitable in German, unless its recent use in regional reorganization under Hitler has spoilt this very old word*. In Scand. languages (in which a related word does not exist) some other (preferably old) word for 'district' or province' should be used. The Swedish version uses Fylki, apparently borrowing the ON, especially Norw. fylki 'district, province'). Actually the Old Norse and mod. Icelandic sýsla (Swedish syssla, Danish syssel, now obsolete in the sense amt, but occurring in place-names) was in mind, when I said that the real untranslated name of the Shire was Súza (III 412); hence it was also said (I 14) that it was so named as 'a district of well ordered business'.

(E: English, CS: Common Speech, OE: Old English, ON: Old Norse)

*On retrouve là un reproche "professionnel" de Tolkien envers les nazis, mentionné aussi dans ses lettres, celui d'avoir jeté l'opprobre sur la "noble matière nordique".
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